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In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.

Mitochondrial Eve lived later than Homo heidelbergensis and the emergence of Homo neanderthalensis, but earlier than the out of Africa migration, Because mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) is almost exclusively passed from mother to offspring without recombination (see the exception at paternal mt DNA transmission), most mt DNA in every living person differs only by the mutations that have occurred over generations in the germ cell mt DNA since the conception of the original "Mitochondrial Eve".

The molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) was calibrated by setting the date of divergence between primates and ungulates at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (65 million years ago), when the extinction of dinosaurs occurred.

A generalized leastsquares method was applied in fitting a model to mt DNA sequence data, and the clock gave dates of 92.3±11.7, 13.3±1.5, 10.9±1.2, 3.7±0.6, and 2.7±0.6 million years ago (where the second of each pair of numbers is the standard deviation) for the separation of mouse, gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee, respectively, from the line leading to humans.

This method takes into account effectively the information contained in a set of DNA sequence data.

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Current research has been focused on resolving the high variability obtained from different rate estimates.

A major assumption of the molecular clock theory is that mutations within a particular genetic system occur at a statistically uniform rate and this uniform rate can be used for dating genetic events.

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